Each lesson should have a beginning, middle and end.


A warm up or lead in activity that sets the context for the lesson.


Controlled and free practice activities.


Warm down activity, summary and wrap up.


What to consider when planning a lesson

  1. The students:

What do the students enjoy doing? How will I motivate them? Will they benefit from the learning?

  1. The lesson objectives:

What are the aims of the lesson? Do the aims of each activity relate to the lesson aim? What will they have learnt by the end of the lesson?

  1. The teaching procedures:

In what sequence will I introduce the activities? How well do the activities link together? How long will each activity last? How will I manage the activities?

  1. Teaching material:

What material will be used for each activity? Do the students have the course books? Do I need to make photocopies? Do I need a projector?

  1. Classroom management:

How will I give instructions? What if some students don’t understand instructions? Where will the students be during each of the activities? How will I manage behaviour?

  1. Anticipated problems.

What could go wrong? What if some of the students arrive late and miss the instruction? What if students are familiar with the work? What if there is no computer? Do I have a contingency?

After the lesson ask:

  • Did all the students participate?
  • Was the content of my lesson learnable?
  • Was the content of my lesson useful for students’ cultural context?
  • Were my activities motivating?
  • Were my students engaged throughout the lesson?